Tomato grafting technique to increase yields

Tomato grafting technique to increase yields

Read the first part: Agrotechnology of growing and planting tomato seedlings in a greenhouse

Experiments with tomatoes

Grafting tomatoes

Now about the experiment. 2-3 weeks after planting the seedlings, I start my vaccinations. It is very important here not to miss the right moment. As you know, later it becomes flatter with depressions. In this case, the vaccinations will no longer work or the vaccination sites grow together with difficulty. Therefore, it is important not to miss the favorable time.

It is better

inoculate

in cloudy weather on the day of the fetus on the rising moon, as a last resort, on the day of the flower. At this time, the rise in sap in plants is stronger. This means that the top of the plant is full of sap and strength. Therefore, the effect of grafting can be enhanced if such plants (tomatoes, apple trees) are grafted on the days of the fetus. You cannot be vaccinated on the day of the root - they will not grow together, since all the forces of the plant are concentrated at the root. Once I made part of the vaccinations on the day of the root, and none of them grew together.

If the weather is sunny, then I vaccinate

tomato

in the evening, when the sun had already disappeared. After the operation, I shade the plants from the sun - I cover them with a thin spunbond for several days. One more important condition must be observed: do not water the plants a few days before the vaccinations - they should slightly wither. Otherwise, tomato stems will be brittle. A week before grafting, I remove the two lower leaves from the plants.

For vaccinations, you need the following tools and devices: a sharp blade, scissors, duct tape (which stretches), cotton wool, salicylic alcohol, or a bottle of vodka. I put all the inventory in a small shallow basket so that everything is at hand.

And then I start to vaccinate. I untie the plants from the sticks, I tie the top of the tomatoes with a ribbon (not tight) so that they do not crumble. You don't have to tie them if you have an assistant who will hold the top of the plants. Before making an incision on the stem, I figure out where the most successful junction is. I select the most convex part of the stem at the bottom of my tomatoes. I connect the stems to see if they can reach each other. I rub my hands and the blade with cotton wool dipped in salicylic alcohol.

I make a 4-5 cm long cut from top to bottom on the scion and rootstock, while cutting off a very thin layer of the skin. After each such cut, I again wipe the blade with salicylic alcohol. The length of the sections for the rootstock and the scion must be the same. I connect the places of the cuts together on the stems. With my left hand I firmly hold the connected stems, and with my right hand I tightly wrap them with an electrical tape spiral, moving progressively from bottom to top. Of course, it will be much more convenient to do this with an assistant who will hold the plants. Slices will necessarily grow together if they are firmly connected to each other.

Since I am already grafting adult tomatoes, I do not remove the tape from the duct tape later. After all the grafts on the scion (left), I remove the upper part of the stem, leaving only two lower leaves, sprinkle the cut site with Bisolbifit powder, and water both plants and spray only the stock with HB-101 solution - when watering 2 drops per liter of water, when spraying 1 drop per liter of water. After two weeks, I remove the bottom leaf on the scion, and after another week, I remove the top leaf. Or you can leave one sheet.

The vaccinations will heal in about 2-2.5 weeks. If the grafting does not take place, the harvest will still be the same as with normal cultivation. Even, perhaps, injured plants yield more generous yields, since after the stress of the injury, their development accelerates. Viktor Kozlov wrote about this (see "Flora Price" №6 (160) -2013). I know that many gardeners are afraid to injure tomatoes. So my parents, when I did these vaccinations, scolded me for scoffing at the unfortunate plants. The main thing here is to isolate such observers so as not to interfere.

One tomato on two roots

After removing the last leaf on the scion, tomato plants are mulched with compost. Further, care consists in watering after drying out the earth in the greenhouse, removing stepchildren twice a week, in weekly feeding. With the appearance of tomatoes on the lower brush, I remove the lower leaves from the main stem. When tomatoes are tied on the next brush, remove the next lower leaves. But I do not completely remove all the leaves on the stem at the end of July, as many gardeners do. I believe that the leaves should participate in the process of photosynthesis and feed the plants. And how will they do it without leaves ?!

Therefore, the top of the stem of my tomatoes is always leafy. It is imperative to remove the lower leaves, they have their own shelf life - they also age. If you leave them, then the tomato bushes will be poorly ventilated, and this will lead to stagnation of air in the greenhouse and to the premature appearance of late blight. By the way, it is also necessary to monitor the scion: the appearance of stepchildren should not be allowed. In wounded plants, they appear very quickly, as they strive to restore what they have lost. It is best to remove leaves, stepchildren and pinch plants on the waning moon on the day of the root. All the strength of the plant is in the root, and therefore they will not experience stress. These days the danger of saping is the smallest.

I restrict the growth of tomatoes at the end of July - I remove the upper part of the plant, except for cherry tomatoes. I think that this time is the most suitable, since the small fruits that have set will have time to grow and ripen. Many gardeners carry out this procedure in mid-August. But at this time, the nights are already cold, and in 2-3 weeks under such conditions, small tomatoes will not have time to grow, let alone ripen. In addition, this period is unfavorable in terms of the appearance

late blight

... This does not apply to heated greenhouses.

I remove tomato plants that have finished fruiting in late August - early September, except for cherry tomatoes, so that I can sow radishes, spinach, dill and onion sets on the greens in the vacant space. Cherry tomatoes remain to grow, as they are not affected by the lack of heat and lack of natural light. I usually plant them immediately at the entrance from the east side of the greenhouse so that they do not obscure the light or shade the green crops.

To attract pollinators - bees, bumblebees to the greenhouse, I plant physalis next to the greenhouse at the door, and in the greenhouse, immediately at the entrance, I plant seedlings of aromatic herbs: Mexican mint (agastakha), lemon balm or aniseed lofant. You can, of course, plant physalis in the greenhouse, but it takes up too much space. In this case, the physalis stalks do not need to be tied to a support, but spread out on the ground so that they are not on the same tier with the tomatoes. During flowering, these plants attract insects well, which subsequently fly over to the plants of tomatoes, peppers, and cucumbers in my greenhouses.

I would especially like to draw your attention to the opening times of greenhouses in the morning. In greenhouses made of cellular polycarbonate, doors must be opened no later than 9 am. Otherwise, the air will heat up there, and the pollen from the plants will become sterile, and you will miss out on the harvest.

I tried to vaccinate at the small seedling stage at home. But she refused this venture due to the fact that the stem is still very thin and fragile - she spoiled many seedlings, breaking them. Such vaccinations must be done together. And transporting such grown-together seedlings is problematic. And then it is even more difficult to plant it alone in the ground from two pots at the same time, because I have no like-minded people. And one more problem: it is important for me to grow roots on the plant as much as possible, but this cannot be done on grafted seedlings. If you plant two tomatoes in one pot and then graft them, then in one container it will not be possible to build up a good root system in two plants at the same time. In plants grafted at an early stage of seedling, it is necessary to tie up the grafting site every now and then due to the constant growth of the stems, and this is troublesome.

She began to plant tomatoes in 2010. For the purity of the experiment, I chose several varieties and hybrids. I planted several of the same varieties and hybrids next to each other: a grafted and a control specimen without grafting, so that the difference in the fruiting of plants was visible. And she was visible. And the difference was especially noticeable in a cold rainy summer. The grafted plants gave a richer harvest, and the tomatoes were much larger there. Every year I planted seedlings in the greenhouse earlier and earlier. Last year, I planted seedlings on April 18, as a result, the first tomatoes were formed after May 20. When I began to remove tomatoes from the greenhouse in the fall, I had to tinker with them: despite the loose soil, the root system was very powerful, and the roots were very long. So she did everything right.

I tried to vaccinate on plants

cucumber

: planted them on a pumpkin. The vaccination was done in the same way. There are some subtleties here too. Grafts were done this time already at the seedling stage, because later the stems of pumpkin crops become hollow. She was grafted when there were only 2-3 true leaves on a cucumber plant. The stem should be elongated, which is often the case with seedlings. Pumpkin seeds for seedlings should be sown later than cucumber - when the first true leaf appears on the cucumber plant, because the pumpkin grows faster. I grafted plants with the same stem thickness. I did not remove the lower leaves. A few days before vaccination, the seedlings were also not watered. Everything else, as with tomato plants, only the lower two leaves cannot be removed from the pumpkin, otherwise it will die. After the experiments, I refused the troublesome grafting of cucumber, because in my greenhouse cucumbers already give very large yields. Enough for food, and for preparations, and we treat friends.

I advise gardeners to try to vaccinate themselves on several plants using excess tomato seedlings. I do not advise grafting all plants at once until you gain experience. And you yourself will see the advantages of this method, although it will require additional work.

Olga Rubtsova, gardener, candidate of geographical sciences,
Vsevolozhsky district of the Leningrad region

Photo by the author


Why leave tomato roots in the beds for the winter

In addition to cabbage, summer residents also leave tomato roots in the garden for the winter.

If your bushes are healthy, don't pull them out. Cut off the aerial parts with pruning shears, and leave the roots to winter in the ground. Chop the tops of the tops and place them on the beds. After that, sprinkle everything with EM preparations. The beneficial soil bacteria found in EM preparations will speed up the decomposition of plant residues. In the spring, you just have to dig the soil.

Those summer residents who use the described method believe that cabbage and tomato roots left in the garden for the winter affect the soil in the same way as green manure: they improve its structure and increase fertility. What do you think: are there any benefits?


Secrets of a good harvest of tomatoes: varieties worthy of attention

It is believed that winter is a relatively calm period for gardeners. But this is not so, because you need to prepare in advance for spring: purchase seeds, potting mixes, plant growth stimulants - everything you need to get healthy and strong seedlings. In order to achieve the desired results in growing the tomatoes adored in my family, I do not forget about the successful experience of the last season. I select only the most productive varieties with high taste in my collection.

Last season, despite the instability of the weather, we managed to grow a good harvest of tomatoes. True, I had to work hard.

Once again I was convinced that the formula for a good harvest is a high-quality seed, correct agricultural technology and favorable growing conditions. But if you can still buy good varietal seeds, then about that. how to create comfortable conditions for plants to grow, we do not always have a clear idea. It often happens that, like. We do everything right (we fertilize the soil, provide protection of plants from diseases and pests), but the harvest leaves much to be desired. The reason may be saline soil and not only due to the introduction of mineral fertilizers, but also manure. The fact is that the manure contains salt, which is used to feed animals. Especially often, salinization is observed in the greenhouse, where precipitation does not fall and salts are not washed out of the soil.

I myself once faced a similar problem and tried to solve it. The introduction of gypsum (200 g per 1 mg), followed by raking or digging, helped. If the soil is acidic, experts recommend adding dolomite flour or other lime materials. All this should be done before the onset of frost. You should also spill the soil with water or add snow to the greenhouse in winter.

In addition, phytotoxic substances secreted by plants and negatively affecting their growth are retained in the soil. Crop rotation helps me to get rid of them, as well as the introduction of biological products based on pseudomonads (planriz, gaupsin, etc.). From my own experience, I was convinced how important it is to take timely care of the quality of the soil.

When growing tomatoes, I do without "chemistry". If biologics are used correctly, there is no need for chemicals. To protect against diseases throughout the growing season, starting from sowing seeds, I treat the plants with trichodermine. For more than one year I have been saving myself from pests with a tank mixture of Aktofit, Bitoxibacillin and Lepidocid.

I approach the choice of tomato varieties for cultivation very responsibly, because I always want to have on my site only the most beloved and reliable varieties. Every year my collection is replenished with a large number of various new products. At the height of the season, tomato beds resemble a flower garden; bushes with fruits of various shapes and colors flaunt on them, for every taste, among them there are unique specimens.

Last year, we were very pleased with the undersized varieties Pervoklashka, Big Mom, Novinka Kuban, Kumir, Sibiryak, Donskoye, Spring frosts, Krepysh, Danko, Aneta, Siberian shangi. Apple, Lianka, Jam Frazier.

As always, the varieties of the "Gnome" series were at their best: Dwarf Bubble Gum, Dwarf Wild Fred, Dwarf Purple Rain, Dwarf Maralinga, Dwarf Thong. Among the varieties with plum fruits, Riviera pink and Miracles were surprised by the abundance of harvest.

I was completely delighted with the varieties of Romanian selection - Tomatoes Simionesti, Barai, Tomatoes Sarachau, Red Heart of Tahiti Ivanka, Tomatoes Balomir, Queen Marbena, Tomatoes Kublesh, Diva de Deva (favorite of the season). A certain nobility is inherent in these varieties, combined with such advantages as excellent taste, resistance to diseases, high productivity and long-term fruiting.

The dark-fruited varieties Black Crimea, Black Iceberg, Gryazny Kurt, Black Brandywine, Marison Marun, Maple Syrup, Marvelous Marvelous Risen Star Fighter, Black Ox Heart, College Beauty, Big Black Pasta Carol Chico distinguished themselves with high yields and excellent taste of fruits.

Heart-shaped tomatoes are especially popular among gardeners. From “hearts” tomatoes, a very thick and sweet juice is obtained, and in salting they are simply gourmet. Of the pink-fruited representatives, the best were Hippopotamus King, Vologda Bull Heart Pink, Bull Heart Winner 2009, West Virginia Sweets, Dulia, Dagestan, Grandfather Martino, Buffalo Heart, Secret Treasures of Eternity, Belize Pink Heart, Novosibirsk Bull Heart, Krasnodar Home.

Rare beauty and exquisite taste of fruits fascinated the red "hearts" Exhibition, Rafe red heart, Giant heart of Italy, Minusinsk red bull heart. Homer's German bovine heart, America's Heart Good results were shown by the yellow-fruited "hearts" Ilka and the Siberian giant yellow with huge fruits weighing up to 1.5 kg.

The "hearts" of the bicolors Flaming hearts and the Midday sun distinguished themselves by their spectacular presentation and delicious taste.

Rounding out last year's parade of tomatoes are flat-rounded giants. All their splendor was demonstrated by the pink-fruited giant varieties Yuvel, Raspberry Giant, Spassky from Ryazan, Site Colombe, Pink from Navarra, New Generation Burchem, Raspberry Miracle, Bashkir Malinovka. Purple Giant, Large Tree Base, Butterworth Potato Leaf, Dr. Lyle.

The varieties with weighty red fruits, Ashley, Red Sun, Nerven Gradinski, Turkish, Potimar, From a friend giant, Deitweiler, Nanni Bao, Mega Marv, Mom's love, Kuban red large, Krasnodarochka, Castle Chartres, Brutus Magnum, Borovye, looked impressive on the beds. Moruno Anta, Morado de Fitero, Demit de Rosoa.

The summer heat test was successfully passed by the Belgian giant with large yellow fruits, as well as bicolor heavyweights Manhattan two-color, Mom's, Cart Wheel, Allegheny Sunset, Bethlehem Fire, Tuxhans red-yellow, Golden marzipan, Giant of Jerusalem, Giant Liscio. They are all beautiful!

Life has decreed that I spend a lot of time communicating with tomatoes. These magnificent plants require increased attention to themselves, but at the same time they are able to fully thank for the work. The main thing is to find those varieties that are most suitable for growing in the conditions of your area. Take a closer look and you will definitely find them.


Step 3. Preparing the soil and containers for sowing

The seedling soil should be nutritious, light, moisture-absorbing, and have neutral acidity. And of course, it should not contain weed seeds and pathogens.

If you do not harvest the land for growing seedlings yourself, buy soil from trusted manufacturers. There is a special soil for growing tomatoes and peppers. You can also mix purchased soil with humus, vermicompost, rotted compost, earth in a 1: 1 ratio. In this case, it is advisable to water it with a solution of Fitosporin-M, which will help prevent the development of bacteria and fungi in the soil.

When watering the land before sowing, you do not need to add fertilizer: there are enough nutrients in the soil for the growth and development of plants at first.


The benefits of joint landings

Joint planting of herbs, flowers, vegetables and fruit and berry crops opens up great opportunities:

  • allow to reduce or reduce the use of high doses of mineral fertilizers
  • abandon pesticides
  • get a larger yield from the same area in comparison with monoculture
  • get a harvest throughout the season, occupying the vacated area from early early ripening vegetables
  • improve the taste of fruits or berries (for example, bush beans improve the taste of radishes, mint - cabbage) and their nutritional value (the content of sugars and vitamins increases)
  • prevent unilateral soil depletion (for example, severely reduce nitrogen or phosphorus content)


Watch the video: Tomato grafting on the forest brinjal and get double production.