Description of bush steppe cherry varieties

Description of bush steppe cherry varieties

Steppe cherry is a hybrid that was obtained by crossing shrub and garden cherries. If you decide to plant this particular type of berry on the site, first you should read the description, namely to understand the features of this variety, in what conditions it grows best, what soil is most favorable for it... In addition, it is worth remembering several important features of caring for this plant, but still about everything in order. First of all, it is worth finding out what kind of species it is and what qualities it possesses.

Description of steppe bush cherry

Breeding history

To the state international register this type was introduced at the beginning of 2002... This cherry variety is a successful hybrid between bush cherry and common cherry.

The originator of this species is YUNIIPOK - the South Ural Research Institute for Vegetable and Potato Growing.

The authors-scientists who worked on the breeding of this species are Anastasia Efimovna Pankratova, Kabir Kadirovich Mullayanov, Vladimir Ilyich Putyagin, I.G. Zamyatin.

Growing regions

This bush cherry species is widespread throughout all regions of Russia and the CIS countries. Steppe cherry grows in areas:

  • In the Ural region;
  • In the Caucasus;
  • In the Kuban;
  • In the Volga region;
  • In the Nizhny Novgorod region;
  • In the Rostov region;
  • In the Voronezh region;
  • In the Yaroslavl region.

Also, this type of cherry is often found in Asia Minor and Central Europe.

Description of appearance

Characteristics of the tree

Steppe cherry trees have the following characteristics:

  1. Varieties of this type have slender trees, there is no connection of crowns;
  2. Tree height ranges from 2.6 to 3.2 meters;
  3. Trunk size equal to about 20-45 centimeters;
  4. The crown is strong and thick... The shape of the crown is cylindrical-conical and elongated;
  5. On the crowns there is a lot of leaves;
  6. Escapes have oval slightly rounded shapes, they may have a small amount of fluff;
  1. Coloring shoots brown-gray with silvery color;
  2. Shoot length size can reach up to 30-45 cm;
  3. Lentils are medium in sizeare located in small numbers;
  4. The kidney has a flexed state, rather long, medium in size. The touch is smooth, even;
  5. Foliage on trees it has a dark saturated green tint;
  6. The shape of the leaves is rounded, slightly narrowed, oblong, has a slight upward bend;
  7. The size length on average can reach up to 8 cm, and the size of the width - up to 4 cm.

Fruit quality

The steppe cherry berry has a number of characteristics:

  • Berry shape oval with slightly rounded edges;
  • Mass of ripe fruits ranges from 4.2 grams to 5 grams;
  • Coloring ripe fruits maroon, inside the structure of the pulp has a burgundy hue with juice of a bright red color;
  • Cherry peel shiny rather dense, but soft;
  • Peduncle has a retracted shape with a length of about 4 cm;
  • Stalk shape straight, oblique with fine structure.

Many gardeners call steppe cherry varieties dessert, but despite this, they are universal types. They are used for the preparation of various mousses, preserves, jams, compotes, concentrated juices. In addition, decoctions of berries are often used in gastroenterology and in case of fever. Due to the high content of cobalt, nickel, copper, iron, it improves the state of hematopoiesis and general well-being.

Inside the fruit there is a round stone with a cream color. Size of bone thickness is about 0.4 cm. Bone length maybe about 0.6 cm, width - 0.5 cm.

The stone easily moves away from the pulp of the berry, has a smooth surface, therefore, when used, it does not cause cuts and damage in the oral region. The average seed weight is about 0.17-0.20 grams.

Pollination

Cherry varieties of the steppe type are considered self-fertile. They have partial self-pollination. therefore when planting varieties of steppe cherries, you do not need to plant pollinators nearby, it will grow quietly and produce pollinator-free crops.

Bloom

The duration of flowering is average, rather extended in time. Blooming is usually observed on May 20-31. During this period, flowers appear on the trees, which have the following characteristics:

  • The flowers are small in size, they are located on a short peduncle;
  • One inflorescence can have about 5-6 flowers;
  • All petals are located spaciously, at a decent distance from each other;
  • The petals are oval with a wide bifurcated top;
  • The top of the calyx is widened, bell-shaped, slightly serrated;
  • The corolla is made in the form of an oval-saucer;
  • The stamens are located above the stigma of the pistil, their number can be up to 26 pieces.

Yield

Cherry of the steppe type has a stable yield level. Trees give high yields every year.

The fruits are late in ripening. The berries are fully ripe around the beginning of August.... The berries ripen at the same time. With increased precipitation, the berry may crack.

Full fruiting occurs at 4-5 years of life after planting seedlings. One tree can bear fruit well for 35 years.

It is worth noting that from one plant, on average, you can collect from 8 to 11 kilograms of ripe berries. Almost 10-12 tons of berries can be harvested from one hectare.

Frost resistant

Cherry trees of the steppe type tolerate severe frosts well. Plants can easily tolerate frosts down to -48 degrees Celsius.

Fruit buds in winter can withstand moderate frosts, much like trees down to -45-48 degrees Celsius. Inflorescences and buds are slightly above average frost resistance.

But as for the root system, its frost resistance is assessed on a three-point scale. In addition, after freezing, the roots quickly restore their structure.

Advantages and disadvantages of steppe cherry

The advantages of steppe cherry include the following qualities:

  1. High yield... Almost 12 kilograms of ripe berries can be harvested from one tree;
  2. Drought tolerance and frost;
  3. Annual fruiting;
  4. Long lifespan trees, almost 35 years old;
  5. Large berry the same size;
  6. High resistance to diseases;
  7. Reproduction can happen in a variety of ways;
  8. Ripe fruits have excellent taste... In addition, they have a high level of useful components that are useful for the full functioning of the digestive system, and they also improve the state of human hematopoiesis;
  1. Ripe berry can be used for cooking juices, preserves, jams, compotes, jam and other winter preparations.

However, there are also negative qualities:

  • Late ripening, at the beginning of the last month of summer;
  • Fruiting occurs only after 2-4 years after planting seedlings;
  • Soft structure of ripe fruits often damaged by precipitation and transportation.

Features of planting and care

To begin with, it is worth highlighting the main ways of breeding steppe cherries:

  1. With the help of cuttings;
  2. Due to the overgrowth;
  3. Underwire;
  4. By vaccination.

Back in early June, it is necessary to prepare shoots... It is important that they are reddish, with a slight hardening at the base.

The length of the prepared shoots should be more than 30 cm. Pruning should be done in the evening or early in the morning. The weather should be cool. After the stems are cut, they need to be placed in water.... In order to speed up the process of the emergence of the root system, it is advisable to use special chemical growth regulators.

Heteroauxin can be used as a growth regulator... Dilute 100 ml of this product with water and ethyl alcohol. Then you need to tie up the cuttings and lower them into 1 liter of this solution. Keep cuttings in this mixture for 18 hours.

The planting process has certain nuances that should be strictly adhered to:

  • It follows in advance dig up the soil, remove all weeds and unnecessary plants, form beds;
  • All notches should be fill with peat and sand, the layer size should be about 10 cm;
  • Further river sand is poured from above, everything is loosened, leveled and compacted;
  • Thereafter the earth is watered abundantly and is fed with superphosphate;
  • Cuttings should be planted upright, the distance between the trees should be at least 7 cm;
  • Should be planted no more than 3 cm deep;
  • After that all the seedlings are covered with a plastic bag;
  • In the future, it costs ensure good watering.

Watering and fertilizing is the key to a good harvest

During intensive growth, ensure adequate watering. It is carried out 2-3 times. For each watering for one tree, you will need about 3-5 buckets... The first watering is done immediately after flowering, additional fertilizing is added, the second is done immediately after the ovary of the fruit, the third is during the ripening of the berry. Before flowering organic and mineral fertilizers are applied, then they are applied after flowering and at the time of fruit ovary.

Varieties of varieties: Ashinskaya, Bolotovskaya and others

In order for the choice not to cause difficulties, it is still worth knowing which varieties belong to the steppe cherry. Below we will consider the most popular varieties:

  • Generous... It has a high yield, up to 11 kilograms can be removed from one tree. The flowering period is May 18-25. Fruiting begins from 3-4 years of age after planting. Possesses high drought and frost resistance. Life expectancy is 32 years;
  • Bolotovskaya... High-yielding late variety. Begins to bear fruit from 2-3 years of life after disembarkation. Life expectancy up to 30 years;
  • Ashinskaya... Fruiting begins in early August. Begins to bear fruit from 4-5 years of age after disembarkation. Lifetime 30-32 years;
  • Maksimovskaya... A high yielding variety with late fruiting. Fruits ripen from the beginning of August. Young trees begin to bear fruit only 3-4 years after planting. The average lifespan of trees is about 30-35 years.

Diseases and pests

Varieties of the steppe type have increased resistance to the effects of various diseases and pests. Trees are practically not susceptible to the fungal variety of diseases - coccomycosis... And also other types of fungal infections were not observed in steppe cherry.

In addition to this damage by insects, pests and other diseases of varieties of steppe cherry, as well as in felt, was not revealed.

Steppe cherry has good qualities, for which it is appreciated by many summer residents and gardeners. It has good yields, is resistant to frost and is practically not susceptible to diseases.... And her harvests are always pleasing every year and in large quantities. But nevertheless, in order to obtain the desired result, it is necessary to take care of the varieties of this plant - to water, fertilize, perform autumn and spring digging of the earth near the trunk. This is the only way to grow cherries, the harvest of which will delight every year.


Description and characteristics of cherries of the Standard Urals variety, history and features of cultivation

Gardeners in Russia, especially in its northern regions, are faced with the problem of finding a frost-resistant variety that can give a stable harvest. This problem is relevant not only for the north of the country, but also for most of the central regions, where the weather does not indulge in warm winters. Breeders engaged in the development of new varieties presented cherry lovers with a gift called the Standard of the Urals. What are the advantages of the Standard Ural cherry variety, and how to grow it, we will find out below.


Description of the species

Appearance

Steppe cherry belongs to undersized shrubs. An adult bush has a height of 0.5-1.5 meters. It mainly reproduces by basal shoots, very rarely by cuttings. An adult plant has long branching roots with numerous branching offsets. The distance between adjacent shoots at the root is about 70-90 cm. Young offspring are reddish-brown in color, elongated, monopodial in shape. Aboveground part of them is covered with lanceolate, scaly leaves that die off in the process of further growth of the shoot.

Adult trunks have dark gray bark. They are erect, branched, covered with scattered hairs during the period of active growth, become bare over time. The foliage is oblong, 8-16 mm long, depending on the age of the shoot, it has a more rounded oval or lanceolate shape. Leaves are smooth dark green, lighter below, pinnate.
The distribution area runs from North Asia and Siberia to Western Europe. It is not uncommon in Italy, southern Germany and central Poland.

Flowering and fruits

Blooms profusely. Flowers are small, collected in 3-5 umbellate inflorescences or single, appear simultaneously with leaves or before they bloom. Shrub cherry on the garden plot looks attractive and picturesque, has a low growth rate. Refers to partially self-fertile varieties, therefore, other pollinating varieties should be planted nearby to obtain ovaries.

The berries of the steppe cherry, as a rule, are small, in rare grafted varieties they are of medium size, dark red or red in color with a dense skin. They have a sweet-sour, watery taste. Shrub cherry is very susceptible to fungal diseases, in particular to coccomycosis. In the photo you can see the shape of the berries and leaves, the appearance of the bush, in general.


Planting and leaving

In the growing region, the variety is best planted in the spring, before the sap begins to flow. By the autumn cold snap, the plant will have enough time to build up the root system. The only drawback of a spring planting is the frequent watering, which will have to provide the seedling. But in the future, you will have to water only as needed. Since the variety is prone to thickening of the crown, pruning will be a necessary point of care.

Ashinskaya is absolutely undemanding to soil. With proper care, it can grow even on rocky ground, but the site should be sunny. Good development and an abundance of fruits will provide top dressing. They can be mineral (cherries like superphosphate fertilizers, but it is advisable to apply them in the fall) or organic. In dry weather, it is imperative to water the tree after flowering and during the growth of the fruit. Preventive treatments for diseases and pests are carried out as needed.

Ashinskaya is a variety that is unusually resistant to many common diseases and pests, is unpretentious in care and brings decent harvests every year. Excellent taste and marketability of berries make the variety popular among consumers. And on the basis of its characteristics, it is suitable for growing in collective and industrial gardens.

The only drawback is not quite high frost resistance. Freezing up to 3 points causes a decrease in winter temperatures to -48 ° C and below. But this disadvantage is compensated by the high regenerative ability of cherries.


Follow-up care of the culture

Like any fruit and berry crop, Brusnitsyn's cherry needs care.To obtain high yields, it is necessary to carry out the following measures in a timely manner:

  • In the absence of rain in June and July, watering is necessary to fill the berries and support the tree, which lays the buds of future flowers during this period.
  • In August, cherries are not watered if there is natural precipitation. Otherwise, shoots will actively grow and weaken the tree before winter.
  • Shoots of Brusnitsyna cherry varieties grow very quickly. In spring pruning, the bush is shaped and the crown is thinned out. Root shoots are removed in autumn
  • the soil is loosened shallowly.
  • The Brusnitsyna variety is fertilized before flowering and during the formation of fruits with organic matter or ready-made mineral complexes according to the instructions.
  • Before winter, the seedling is protected from frost and rodents with spruce branches.

You can learn more about the rules for pruning bush cherries from the video clip:


1. Volochaevka

This is a hybrid of popular cherry varieties - Lyubskoy and Vladimirskaya... With proper care of the plant, about 15 kg of juicy berries can be harvested from one tree annually.

The tree is medium-sized, with a rounded crown of medium density. The leaves are dark green, shaped like an inverted egg. Fruits are medium in size, deep red in color. Sweet to taste, with a slight sourness.

Inside the berry there is a small bone, which is easily separated from the very juicy and aromatic pulp, which has an excellent dessert taste.

This variety has a drawback: it has an average frost resistance and, under unfavorable growing conditions, can be affected by fungal diseases. In a rainy summer, he often suffers from coccomycosis.

The variety is self-fertile - does not need pollinators


Diseases and pests

Possesses a high indicator of resistance to various diseases. Variety stable to coccomycosis disease... No specific lesions were observed with other fungal diseases.

According to test data from the "Moscow Society for Testing Nature" (MOIP), grade Ashinskaya cherry turned out to be the most resistant to pests and diseases.

Dessertnaya Morozovoy, Zhukovskaya, Toy and Lebedyanskaya are also resistant to some diseases.

No injuries by harmful insects and various diseases were detected.

Output. Ashinskaya steppe cherry has an excellent taste, juicy berries of bright color. It is widely used in industry for the preparation of concentrated juices, jams, mousses. Has a stable yield and simultaneous ripening of cherries. Loved by gardeners for unpretentious cultivation.

Reproduction takes place in all existing ways. It has a high indicator of resistance to droughts and various diseases. The variety is not susceptible to coccomycosis. Fruiting can enter 4 or 5 years after planting cutting. Has a long wood preservation - up to 35 years... It is widespread throughout Russia and the CIS countries.

Watch a video about shrub (steppe) cherry varieties

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